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Structural and functional changes of myosin during development: comparison with adult fast, slow and cardiac myosin.
Dev Biol 46, 317-25
ATPase (Ca2+ and K+ activated) activity of myosin prepared from muscles of 3-4 week rabbit embryos (EM) is slighly lower than that of adult fast muscle myosin (FM), but in contrast to the less active adult slow muscle myosin (SM) is stable on exposure to pH 9.2. Studies of the time course, by means of Na dodecyl-SO4 polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, of changes in the pattern of polypeptides released by tryptic digestion show that in this regard EM is closest to SM. The light chain complement of EM appears identical with that of FM rather than of SM or cardiac myosin (CM) by the criteria of coelectrophoresis and removal by 5,5â€²-dithio-2-dinitrobenzoate treatment of LC2 except that the relative amount of LC3 is less in EM than in FM. The staining pattern of light meromyosin (EMM) paracrystals prepared from EM is distinct from either the FM, SM or CM LMM staining pattern. These studies suggest that different genes are involved in the coding for embryonic and adult heavy chains.
The role of alkalication in formation and decomposition of myosin-ATP complex.
Biochim Biophys Acta 384, 508-15.
The dependence of kinetic constants Km, V(k2) and k1 of myosin-ATPase on the species and concentration of alkali cations and on temperature was investigated. The value of Vvaries with the ionic radius of different alkali cations. The curve has a maximum at 1.33 A at the ionic radius of potassium. The detailed analysis of the cation dependence of the kinetics of the ATPose reaction shows that both formation and decomposition of the complex are affected by the cation present.
The substructure of heavy meromyosin. The effect of Ca2+ and Mg2+ on the tryptic fragmentation of heavy meromyosin.
J Biol Chem 250, 6168-77.
Heavy meromyosin, obtained by tryptic digestion of myosin, containing two main polypeptides whose masses were estimated as 81,000 and 74,000 dlatons from Na dodecyl-SO4 polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was further digested with trypsin. The Ca2+-activated ATPase activity remainded unchanged and the K+-EDTA activity increased while various smaller fragments were formed. The formation of some of these fragments is affected by Ca2+ or Mg2+ as first shown by Bálint et al. (Bálint, M., Schaefer, A., Biro, N. A., Menczel, L., AND Fejes, E. (1971) J. Physiol. Chem. Phys. 3, 455). On the basis of the time course of the appearance of fragments the following relationship emerges: see article. The 64K leads to 60K step is inhibited by divalent cations, while the breakdown of the 74K fragment is accelerated. The effect of Ca2+ was maximal at 0 similar to 0.1 muM, that of Mg2+ at 10 muM. The original light chains of myosin are not present in the heavy meromyosin serving as the starting material, but peptide material appears on electrophoresis in positions starting material, but peptide material appears on electrophoresis in positions where the light chains would be found. The fragments marked by an asterisk are considered to ba alpha-helical on the basis of their solubility at low ionic strength after precipitation with ethanol (Bálint et al.). The fact that alpha helical fragments are derived from the 60,000-dalton fragment indicateds that it is adjacent to the light meromyosin in the intact myosin while the 74,000- dalton fragment would be part of heavy meromysoin subfragment 1. Chromatography of Sephadex G-200 separates fractions with ATPase activity corresponding to heavy meromyosin and heavy meromyosin subfragment 1. Electrophoresis of these Sephadex fractions suggests that the main peptide constituting heavy meromysoin subfragment 1 is connected by noncobalent forces to a portion of the rod that is not immediately adjacent to it in the primary sequence. The significance of this finding is discussed in terms of the flexibility of the myosin head.