Yang, Y., Kovács, M., Xu, Q., Anderson, J. B. & Sellers, J. R.

Myosin VIIB from Drosophila is a high duty ratio motor.

J Biol Chem 280, 32061-8.

Myosin VII is an unconventional myosin widely expressed in organisms ranging from amoebae to mammals that has been shown to play vital roles in cell adhesion and phagocytosis. Here we present the first study of the mechanism of action of a myosin VII isoform. We have expressed a truncated single-headed Drosophila myosin VIIB construct in the baculovirus-Sf9 system that bound calmodulin light chains. By using steady-state and transient kinetic methods, we showed that myosin VIIB exhibits a fast release of phosphate and a slower, rate-limiting ADP release from actomyosin. As a result, myosin VIIB will be predominantly strongly bound to actin during steady-state ATP hydrolysis (its duty ratio will be at least 80%). This kinetic pattern is in many respects similar to that of the single-molecule vesicle transporters myosin V and VI. The enzymatic properties of myosin VIIB provide a kinetic basis for processivity upon possible dimerization via the C-terminal domains of the heavy chain. Our experiments also revealed conformational heterogeneity of the actomyosin VIIB complex in the absence of nucleotide.

Tóth, J., Kovács, M., Wang, F., Nyitray, L. & Sellers, J. R.

Myosin V from Drosophila reveals diversity of motor mechanisms within the myosin V family.

J Biol Chem 280, 30594-603.

Myosin V is the best characterized vesicle transporter in vertebrates, but it has been unknown as to whether all members of the myosin V family share a common, evolutionarily conserved mechanism of action. Here we show that myosin V from Drosophila has a strikingly different motor mechanism from that of vertebrate myosin Va, and it is a nonprocessive, ensemble motor. Our steady-state and transient kinetic measurements on single-headed constructs reveal that a single Drosophila myosin V molecule spends most of its mechanochemical cycle time detached from actin, therefore it has to function in processive units that comprise several molecules. Accordingly, in in vitro motility assays, double-headed Drosophila myosin V requires high surface concentrations to exhibit a continuous translocation of actin filaments. Our comparison between vertebrate and fly myosin V demonstrates that the well preserved function of myosin V motors in cytoplasmic transport can be accomplished by markedly different underlying mechanisms.

Szenthe, B., Frost, C., Szilágyi, L., Patthy, A., Naude, R. & Gráf, L.

Cloning and expression of ostrich trypsinogen: an avian trypsin with a highly sensitive autolysis site.

Biochim Biophys Acta 1748, 35-42.

One of ostrich (Struthio camelus) trypsinogen genes was cloned from pancreatic cDNA. Its amino acid sequence compared to known trypsin sequences from other species shows high identity and suggests that it is a member of the phylogenetically anionic trypsinogen I subfamily. After cytoplasmic over expression in Escherichia coli and renaturation, the activation properties of ostrich trypsinogen were studied and compared to those of human trypsinogen 1 (also called as human cationic trypsinogen). Ostrich trypsinogen undergoes bovine enterokinase activation and autoactivation much faster than human trypsinogen 1 and exhibits on a synthetic substrate a somewhat higher enzymatic activity than the latter one. The most interesting property of ostrich trypsin is its relatively fast autolysis that can be explained via a mechanism different from the common mechanism for rat and human 1 trypsins. The latter proteases have a site, Arg117-Val118, where the autolysis starts and then goes on in a zipper-like fashion. This is absent from ostrich trypsin. Instead it has a couple of cleavage sites within regions 67-98, including two unusual ones, Arg76-Glu77 and Arg83-Ser84. These appear to be hydrolysed fast in a non-consecutive manner. Such an autolysis mechanism could not be inhibited by a single-site mutation which in humans is proposed to lead to pancreatitis.

Reményi, A., Good, M. C., Bhattacharyya, R. P. & Lim, W. A.

The role of docking interactions in mediating signaling input, output, and discrimination in the yeast MAPK network.

Mol Cell 20, 951-62.

Cells use a network of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) to coordinate responses to diverse extracellular signals. Here, we examine the role of docking interactions in determining connectivity of the yeast MAPKs Fus3 and Kss1. These closely related kinases are activated by the common upstream MAPK kinase Ste7 yet generate distinct output responses, mating and filamentous growth, respectively. We find that docking interactions are necessary for communication with the kinases and that they can encode subtle differences in pathway-specific input and output. The cell cycle arrest mediator Far1, a mating-specific substrate, has a docking motif that selectively binds Fus3. In contrast, the shared partner Ste7 has a promiscuous motif that binds both Fus3 and Kss1. Structural analysis reveals that Fus3 interacts with specific and promiscuous peptides in conformationally distinct modes. Induced fit recognition may allow docking peptides to achieve discrimination by exploiting subtle differences in kinase flexibility.

Pál, G., Ultsch, M. H., Clark, K. P., Currell, B., Kossiakoff, A. A. & Sidhu, S. S.

Intramolecular cooperativity in a protein binding site assessed by combinatorial shotgun scanning mutagenesis.

J Mol Biol 347, 489-94.

Combinatorial shotgun alanine-scanning was used to assess intramolecular cooperativity in the high affinity site (site 1) of human growth hormone (hGH) for binding to its receptor. A total of 19 side-chains were analyzed and statistically significant data were obtained for 145 of the 171 side-chain pairs. The analysis revealed that 90% of the side-chain pairs exhibited no statistically significant pair interactions, and the remaining 10% of side-chain pairs exhibited only small interactions corresponding to cooperative interaction energies with magnitudes less than 0.4 kcal/mol. The statistical predictions were tested by measuring affinities for purified mutant proteins and were found to be accurate for five of six side-chain pairs tested. The results reveal that hGH site 1 behaves in a highly additive manner and suggest that shotgun scanning should be useful for assessing cooperative effects in other protein-protein interactions.

Pál, G., Fong, S. Y., Kossiakoff, A. A. & Sidhu, S. S.

Alternative views of functional protein binding epitopes obtained by combinatorial shotgun scanning mutagenesis.

Protein Sci 14, 2405-13.

Combinatorial shotgun scanning mutagenesis was used to analyze two large, related protein binding sites to assess the specificity and importance of individual side chain contributions to binding affinity. The strategy allowed for cost-effective generation of a plethora of functional data. The ease of the technology promoted comprehensive investigations, in which the classic alanine-scanning approach was expanded with two additional strategies, serine- and homolog-scanning. Binding of human growth hormone (hGH) to the hGH receptor served as the model system. The entire high affinity receptor-binding sites (site 1) of wild-type hGH (hGHwt) and of an affinity-improved variant (hGHv) were investigated and the results were compared. The contributions that 35 residue positions make to binding were assessed on each hormone molecule by both serine- and homolog-scanning. The hormone molecules were displayed on the surfaces of bacteriophage, and the 35 positions were randomized simultaneously to allow equal starting frequencies of the wild-type residue and either serine or a homologous mutation in separate libraries. Functional selections for binding to the hGH receptor shifted the relative wild-type/mutant frequencies at each position to an extent characteristic of the functional importance of the side chain. Functional epitope maps were created and compared to previous maps obtained by alanine-scanning. Comparisons between the different scans provide insights into the affinity maturation process that produced hGHv. The serine and homolog-scanning results expand upon and complement the alanine-scanning results and provide additional data on the robustness of the high affinity receptor-binding site of hGH.

Málnási-Csizmadia, A., Dickens, J. L., Zeng, W. & Bagshaw, C. R.

Switch movements and the myosin crossbridge stroke.

J Muscle Res Cell Motil 26, 31-7.

The myosin II motor from Dictyostelium discoideum has been engineered to contain single tryptophan residues at strategic locations to probe movements of switch 1 and switch 2. The tryptophan residue at W501 probes movement of the relay helix and indirectly reports on switch 2 movement. This probe suggests that there is an equilibrium between the switch 2 open- and closed-states when the gamma-phosphate position is occupied. Actin does not appear to greatly affect this equilibrium directly, but has indirect influence via switch 1. The latter region has been probed by introducing tryptophan residues at positions 239 and 242. The kinetics of the actomyosin ATPase in solution is discussed with respect to recent crossbridge models based on high-resolution crystal structures.

Liu, X., Shu, S., Kovács, M. & Korn, E. D.

Biological, biochemical, and kinetic effects of mutations of the cardiomyopathy loop of Dictyostelium myosin II: importance of ALA400.

J Biol Chem 280, 26974-83.

The cardiomyopathy (CM)-loop of the heavy chain of class-II myosins begins with a highly conserved Arg residue (whose mutation in human beta-cardiac myosin II results in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). The CM-loop of Dictyostelium myosin II (Arg397-Gln407) is essential for its biological functions and biochemical activities. We found that the CM-loop of smooth muscle myosin II substituted partially, and the CM-loop of beta-cardiac myosin II less well, for growth, capping of surface receptors and development, and the actin-activated MgATPase and in vitro motility activities of purified myosins. There was little correlation between the biochemical and biological activities of the two chimeras and 19 point mutants, but only the five mutants with k cat/K actin values equivalent to wild-type myosin supported essentially full biological function. The three point mutations of Arg397 equivalent to those that result in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in humans had minimal biological effects and different biochemical effects. The A400V mutation rendered full-length wild-type myosin almost completely inactive, both in vitro and in vivo, and the reverse V400A mutation in the cardiac CM-loop chimera restored almost full activity, even though the sequence still differed from wild-type in 7 of 11 positions. Transient kinetic studies of acto-subfragment-1 (S1) showed that the chimeras and the Ala/Val, Val/Ala mutations do not affect the equilibrium or the association and dissociation rate constants for either ATP or ADP binding to acto-S1 or the rate of ATP-induced dissociation of acto-S1. We conclude that the Ala/Val, Val/Ala mutations affect the release of Pi from acto-S1.ADP.Pi. In addition, Val at position 400 substantially reduces the affinity of actin for S1 in the absence of nucleotide.

Kudryashov, D. S., Sawaya, M. R., Adisetiyo, H., Norcross, T., Hegyi, G., Reisler, E. & Yeates, T. O.

The crystal structure of a cross-linked actin dimer suggests a detailed molecular interface in F-actin.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102, 13105-10.

The 2.5-A resolution crystal structure is reported for an actin dimer, composed of two protomers cross-linked along the longitudinal (or vertical) direction of the F-actin filament. The crystal structure provides an atomic resolution view of a molecular interface between actin protomers, which we argue represents a near-native interaction in the F-actin filament. The interaction involves subdomains 3 and 4 from distinct protomers. The atomic positions in the interface visualized differ by 5-10 A from those suggested by previous models of F-actin. Such differences fall within the range of uncertainties allowed by the fiber diffraction and electron microscopy methods on which previous models have been based. In the crystal, the translational arrangement of protomers lacks the slow twist found in native filaments. A plausible model of F-actin can be constructed by reintroducing the known filament twist, without disturbing significantly the interface observed in the actin dimer crystal.

Kovács, M., Wang, F. & Sellers, J. R.

Mechanism of action of myosin X, a membrane-associated molecular motor.

J Biol Chem 280, 15071-83.

We have performed a detailed biochemical kinetic and spectroscopic study on a recombinant myosin X head construct to establish a quantitative model of the enzymatic mechanism of this membrane-bound myosin. Our model shows that during steady-state ATP hydrolysis, myosin X exhibits a duty ratio (i.e. the fraction of the cycle time spent strongly bound to actin) of around 16%, but most of the remaining myosin heads are also actin-attached even at moderate actin concentrations in the so-called "weak" actin-binding states. Contrary to the high duty ratio motors myosin V and VI, the ADP release rate constant from actomyosin X is around five times greater than the maximal steady-state ATPase activity, and the kinetic partitioning between different weak actin-binding states is a major contributor to the rate limitation of the enzymatic cycle. Two different ADP states of myosin X are populated in the absence of actin, one of which shows very similar kinetic properties to actomyosin.ADP. The nucleotide-free complex of myosin X with actin shows unique spectral and biochemical characteristics, indicating a special mode of actomyosin interaction.

Kovács, B. M., Szilágyi, L., Janan, J. & Rudas, P.

Serum amyloid A in geese; cloning and expression of recombinant protein.

Amyloid 12, 109-14.

We defined the nucleotide-sequence of the full-length goose serum amyloid A and compared it to SAA sequences of the duck. The aim of this work was to clone and express recombinant goose SAA and to produce antibody against this protein: Total RNA was isolated from goose liver and used to synthesise first strand cDNA. The coding region of the goose SAA cDNA was amplified by PCR using primers corresponding to the appropriate conservative regions of duck SAA mRNA. The product was subcloned into pET-15b expression vector to result in a His*Tag fusion protein expression. The protein was purified by affinity chromatography. Rabbits were then immunized against the recombinant purified goose SAA protein. The anti-SAA serum was tested by Western blotting. Full-length goose SAA mRNA sequence has been obtained and sequenced.

Kouadio, J. L., Horn, J. R., Pál, G. & Kossiakoff, A. A.

Shotgun alanine scanning shows that growth hormone can bind productively to its receptor through a drastically minimized interface.

J Biol Chem 280, 25524-32.

The high affinity binding site (Site1) of the human growth hormone (hGH) binds to its cognate receptor (hGHR) via a concave surface patch containing about 35 residues. Using 167 sequences from a shotgun alanine scanning analysis of Site1, we have determined that over half of these residues can be simultaneously changed to an alanine or a non-isosteric amino acid while still retaining a high affinity interaction. Among these hGH variants the distribution of the mutation is highly variable throughout the interface, although helix 4 is more conserved than the other binding elements. Kinetic and thermodynamic analyses were performed on 11 representative hGH Site1 variants that contained 14-20 mutations. Generally, the tightest binding variants showed similar associated rate constants (k(on)) as the wild-type (wt) hormone, indicating that their binding proceeds through a similar transition state intermediate. However, calorimetric analyses indicate very different thermodynamic partitioning: wt-hGH binding exhibits favorable enthalpy and entropy contributions, whereas the variants display highly favorable enthalpy and highly unfavorable entropy contributions. The heat capacities (DeltaCp) on binding measured for wt-hGH and its variants are significantly larger than normally seen for typical protein-protein interactions, suggesting large conformational or solvation effects. The multiple Site1 mutations are shown to indirectly affect binding of the second receptor at Site2 through an allosteric mechanism. We show that the stability of the ternary hormone-receptor complex reflects the affinity of the Site2 binding and is surprisingly exempt from changes in Site1 affinity, directly demonstrating that dissociation of the active signaling complex is a stepwise process.

Kondrák, M., Kutas, J., Szenthe, B., Patthy, A., Bánfalvy, Zs., Nádasy, M., Gráf, L., Asbóth, B.

Inhibition of Colorado potato beetle larvae by a locust proteinase inhibitor peptide expressed in potato.

Biotechnology Letters 12, 829-834.

The cDNA for a 73-mer peptide containing two locust serine proteinase inhibitors was cloned, fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter and introduced into potato by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. From 23 independent transgenic lines, three with high mRNA level and proteinase inhibitory activity were propagated in vitro and transferred to pots. The peptide from the leaves was identified by its N-terminal sequence and by K(i) values against chymotrypsin and trypsin. Colorado potato beetle larvae reared on transgenic plants grew slightly but significantly more slowly than those on control plants. This supports the notion that expression of multifunctional proteinase inhibitors of insect origin might be a good strategy to improve insect resistance in plants.

Kim, K. Y., Kovács, M., Kawamoto, S., Sellers, J. R. & Adelstein, R. S.

Disease-associated mutations and alternative splicing alter the enzymatic and motile activity of nonmuscle myosins II-B and II-C.

J Biol Chem 280, 22769-75.

Human families with single amino acid mutations in nonmuscle myosin heavy chain (NMHC) II-A (MYH9) and II-C (MYH14) have been described as have mice generated with a point mutation in NMHC II-B (MYH10). These mutations (R702C and N93K in human NMHC II-A, R709C in murine NMHC II-B, and R726S in human NMHC II-C) result in phenotypes affecting kidneys, platelets, and leukocytes (II-A), heart and brain (II-B), and the inner ear (II-C). To better understand the mechanisms underlying these defects, we characterized the in vitro activity of mutated and wild-type baculovirus-expressed heavy meromyosin (HMM) II-B and II-C. We also expressed two alternatively spliced isoforms of NMHC II-C which differ by inclusion/exclusion of eight amino acids in loop 1, with and without mutations. Comparison of the actin-activated MgATPase activity and in vitro motility shows that mutation of residues Asn-97 and Arg-709 in HMM II-B and the homologous residue Arg-722 (Arg-730 in the alternatively spliced isoform) in HMM II-C decreases both parameters but affects in vitro motility more severely. Analysis of the transient kinetics of the HMM II-B R709C mutant shows an extremely tight affinity of HMM for ADP and a very slow release of ADP from acto-HMM. Although mutations generally decreased HMM activity, the R730S mutation in HMM II-C, unlike the R730C mutation, had no effect on actin-activated MgATPase activity but decreased the rate of in vitro motility by 75% compared with wild type. Insertion of eight amino acids into the HMM II-C heavy chain increases both actin-activated MgATPase activity and in vitro motility.

Kardos, J., Okuno, D., Kawai, T., Hagihara, Y., Yumoto, N., Kitagawa, T., Závodszky, P., Naiki, H. & Goto, Y.

Structural studies reveal that the diverse morphology of beta(2)-microglobulin aggregates is a reflection of different molecular architectures.

Biochim Biophys Acta 1753, 108-20

Horváth, I., Harmat, V., Perczel, A., Pálfi, V., Nyitray, L. , Nagy, A., Hlavanda, E., Náray-Szabó, G. & Ovádi, J.

The structure of the complex of calmodulin with KAR-2: a novel mode of binding explains the unique pharmacology of the drug.

J Biol Chem 280, 8266-74.

Fellouse, F. A. & Pál, G.

Methods for the Construction of phage-displayed libraries. In Phage Display in Biotechnology and Drug Discovery (Sachdev, S. S., ed.).

CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.

Debreczeni, J. E., Farkas, L., Harmat, V., Hetényi, C., Hajdú, I., Závodszky, P., Kohama, K. & Nyitray, L.

Structural evidence for non-canonical binding of Ca2+ to a canonical EF-hand of a conventional myosin.

J Biol Chem 280, 41458-64.

We have previously identified a single inhibitory Ca2+-binding site in the first EF-hand of the essential light chain of Physarum conventional myosin (Farkas, L., Malnasi-Csizmadia, A., Nakamura, A., Kohama, K., and Nyitray, L. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 27399-27405). As a general rule, conformation of the EF-hand-containing domains in the calmodulin family is "closed" in the absence and "open" in the presence of bound cations; a notable exception is the unusual Ca2+-bound closed domain in the essential light chain of the Ca2+-activated scallop muscle myosin. Here we have reported the 1.8 A resolution structure of the regulatory domain (RD) of Physarum myosin II in which Ca2+ is bound to a canonical EF-hand that is also in a closed state. The 12th position of the EF-hand loop, which normally provides a bidentate ligand for Ca2+ in the open state, is too far in the structure to participate in coordination of the ion. The structure includes a second Ca2+ that only mediates crystal contacts. To reveal the mechanism behind the regulatory effect of Ca2+, we compared conformational flexibilities of the liganded and unliganded RD. Our working hypothesis, i.e. the modulatory effect of Ca2+ on conformational flexibility of RD, is in line with the observed suppression of hydrogen-deuterium exchange rate in the Ca2+-bound form, as well as with results of molecular dynamics calculations. Based on this evidence, we concluded that Ca2+-induced change in structural dynamics of RD is a major factor in Ca2+-mediated regulation of Physarum myosin II activity.

Fodor, K., Harmat, V., Hetényi, C., Kardos, J., Antal, J., Perczel, A., Katona, G., Gráf, L.

Extended intermolecular interactions in a serine protease-canonical inhibitor complex account for strong and highly specific inhibition.

J. Mol. Biol. 350, 156-169.