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Lassan járj, tovább érsz: a sejtosztódás és differenciáció motorjainak mechanikai szabályozása
Cross-linked long-pitch actin dimer forms stoichiometric complexes with gelsolin segment 1 and/or deoxyribonuclease I that nonproductively interact with myosin subfragment 1.
Actin dimer cross-linked along the long pitch of the F-actin helix by N-(4-azido)-2-nitrophenyl (ANP) was purified by gel filtration. Purified dimers were found to polymerize on increasing the ionic strength, although at reduced rate and extent in comparison with native actin. Purified actin dimer interacts with the actin-binding proteins (ABPs) deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) and gelsolin segment-1 (G1) as analyzed by gel filtration and native gel electrophoresis. Complex formation of the actin dimer with these ABPs inhibits its ability to polymerize. The interaction with rabbit skeletal muscle myosin subfragment 1 (S1) was analyzed for polymerized actin dimer and dimer complexed with gelsolin segment 1 or DNase I by measurement of the actin-stimulated myosin S1-ATPase and gel filtration. The data obtained indicate binding of subfragment 1 to actin dimer, albeit with considerably lower affinity than to F-actin. Polymerized actin dimer was able to stimulate the S1-ATPase activity to about 50% of the level of native F-actin. In contrast, the actin dimer complexed to DNase I or gelsolin segment 1 or to both proteins was unable to significantly stimulate the S1-ATPase. Similarly, G1:dimer complex at 20 microM stimulated the rate of release of subfragment 1 bound nucleotide (mant-ADP) only 1.6-fold in comparison to about 9-fold by native F-actin at a concentration of 0.5 microM. Using rapid kinetic techniques, a dissociation constant of 2.4 x 10 (-6) M for subfragment 1 binding to G1:dimer was determined in comparison to 3 x 10 (-8) M for native F-actin under identical conditions. Since the rate of association of subfragment 1 to G1:dimer was considerably lower than to native F-actin, we suspect that the ATP-hydrolysis by S1 was catalyzed before its association to the dimer. These data suggest an altered, nonproductive mode for the interaction of subfragment 1 with the isolated long-pitch actin dimer.
Experimental investigation of the seesaw mechanism of the relay region that moves the myosin lever arm.
A seesaw-like movement of the relay region upon the recovery step of myosin was recently simulated in silico. In this model the relay helix tilts around its pivoting point formed by a phenylalanine cluster (Phe(481), Phe(482), and Phe(652)), which moves the lever arm of myosin. To study the effect of the elimination of the proposed pivoting point, these phenylalanines were mutated to alanines in two Dictyostelium myosin II motor domain constructs (M(F481A, F482A) and M(F652A)). The relay movement was followed by the fluorescence change of Trp(501) located in the relay region. The steady-state and transient kinetic fluorescence experiments showed that the lack of the phenylalanine fulcrum perturbs the formation of the "up" lever arm state, and only moderate effects were found in the nucleotide binding, the formation of the "down" lever arm position, and the ATP hydrolysis steps. We conclude that the lack of the fulcrum decouples the distal part of the relay from the nucleotide binding site upon the recovery step. Our molecular dynamics simulations also showed that the conformation of the motor is not perturbed by the mutation in the down lever arm state, however, the lack of the pivoting point rearranges the dynamic pattern of the kink region of the relay helix.
Identification of natural target proteins indicates functions of a serralysin-type metalloprotease, PrtA, in anti-immune mechanisms.
Serralysins are generally thought to function as pathogenicity factors of bacteria, but so far no hard evidence of this (e.g., specific substrate proteins that are sensitive to the cleavage by these proteases) has been found. We have looked for substrate proteins to a serralysin-type proteinase, PrtA, in a natural host-pathogen molecular interaction system involving Manduca sexta and Photorhabdus luminescens. The exposure in vitro of hemolymph to PrtA digestion resulted in selective cleavage of 16 proteins, provisionally termed PAT (PrtA target) proteins. We could obtain sequence information for nine of these PrtA sensitive proteins, and by searching databases, we could identify six of them. Each has immune-related function involving every aspect of the immune defense: beta-1,3 glucan recognition protein 2 (immune recognition), hemocyte aggregation inhibitor protein (HAIP), serine proteinase homolog 3, six serpin-1 variants, including serpin-1I (immune signaling and regulation), and scolexins A and B (coagulation cascade effector function). The functions of the identified PrtA substrate proteins shed new light on a possible participation of a serralysin in the virulence mechanism of a pathogen. Provided these proteins are targets of PrtA in vivo, this might represent, among others, a complex suppressive role on the innate immune response via interference with both the recognition and the elimination of the pathogen during the first, infective stage of the host-pathogen interaction. Our results also raise the possibility that the natural substrate proteins of serralysins of vertebrate pathogens might be found among the components of the innate immune system.
An unstable head-rod junction may promote folding into the compact off-state conformation of regulated myosins.
J Mol Biol 375, 1434-43.
The N-terminal region of myosin's rod-like subfragment 2 (S2) joins the two heads of this dimeric molecule and is key to its function. Previously, a crystal structure of this predominantly coiled-coil region was determined for a short fragment (51 residues plus a leucine zipper) of the scallop striated muscle myosin isoform. In that study, the N-terminal 10-14 residues were found to be disordered. We have now determined the structure of the same scallop peptide in three additional crystal environments. In each of two of these structures, improved order has allowed visualization of the entire N-terminus in one chain of the dimeric peptide. We have also compared the melting temperatures of this scallop S2 peptide with those of analogous peptides from three other isoforms. Taken together, these experiments, along with examination of sequences, point to a diminished stability of the N-terminal region of S2 in regulated myosins, compared with those myosins whose regulation is thin filament linked. It seems plain that this isoform-specific instability promotes the off-state conformation of the heads in regulated myosins. We also discuss how myosin isoforms with varied thermal stabilities share the basic capacity to transmit force efficiently in order to produce contraction in their on states.
A redesigned genetic code for selective labeling in protein NMR.
BioEssays 30, 1-9.
The outline of a universal cell-free translation system capable of site-specific insertion of any types of labeled amino acids is presented. The system could be an invaluable tool for NMR spectroscopy by making the exclusive and exact labeling of the segments of interest possible. Although the development of such a system requires considerable efforts and can not be expected to be available in the next few years, we argue that recent findings concerning the translation apparatus provide clues for overcoming the major difficulties that might arise. We propose a genetic code and a reactor expected to fulfill the specific requirements. Importantly, incomplete systems could also be useful to study selected functional aspects of a number of proteins, examples of which are also given.
Probing conformational plasticity of the activation domain of trypsin: the role of glycine hinges.
Biochemistry 47, 1675-84.
Trypsin-like serine proteases play essential roles in diverse physiological processes such as hemostasis, apoptosis, signal transduction, reproduction, immune response, matrix remodeling, development, and differentiation. All of these proteases share an intriguing activation mechanism that involves the transition of an unfolded domain (activation domain) of the zymogen to a folded one in the active enzyme. During this conformational change, activation domain segments move around highly conserved glycine hinges. In the present study, hinge glycines were replaced by alanine residues via site directed mutagenesis. The effects of these mutations on the interconversion of the zymogen-like and active conformations as well as on catalytic activity were studied. Mutant trypsins showed zymogen-like structures to varying extents characterized by increased flexibility of some activation domain segments, a more accessible N-terminus and a deformed substrate binding site. Our results suggest that the trypsinogen to trypsin transition is hindered by the mutations, which results in a shift of the equilibrium between the inactive zymogen-like and active enzyme conformations toward the inactive state. Our data also showed, however, that the inactive conformations of the various mutants differ from each other. Binding of substrate analogues shifted the conformational equilibrium toward the active enzyme since inhibited forms of the trypsin mutants showed similar structural features as the wild-type enzyme. The catalytic activity of the mutants correlated with the proper conformation of the active site, which could be supported by varying conformations of the N-terminus and the autolysis loop. Transient kinetic measurements confirmed the existence of an inactive to active conformational transition occurring prior to substrate binding.
The mechanism of the reverse recovery step, phosphate release, and actin activation of Dictyostelium myosin II.
J Biol Chem 283, 8153-63.
The rate-limiting step of the myosin basal ATPase (i.e. in absence of actin) is assumed to be a post-hydrolysis swinging of the lever arm (reverse recovery step), that limits the subsequent rapid product release steps. However, direct experimental evidence for this assignment is lacking. To investigate the binding and the release of ADP and phosphate independently from the lever arm motion, two single tryptophan-containing motor domains of Dictyostelium myosin II were used. The single tryptophans of the W129+ and W501+ constructs are located at the entrance of the nucleotide binding pocket and near the lever arm, respectively. Kinetic experiments show that the rate-limiting step in the basal ATPase cycle is indeed the reverse recovery step, which is a slow equilibrium step (k(forward) = 0.05 s(-1), k(reverse) = 0.15 s(-1)) that precedes the phosphate release step. Actin directly activates the reverse recovery step, which becomes practically irreversible in the actin-bound form, triggering the power stroke. Even at low actin concentrations the power stroke occurs in the actin-attached states despite the low actin affinity of myosin in the pre-power stroke conformation.
Adjustment of conformational flexibility of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a means of thermal adaptation and allosteric regulation.
Eur Biophys J.
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from Thermotoga maritima (TmGAPDH) is a thermostable enzyme (Tm = 102 degrees C), which is fully active at temperatures near 80 degrees C but has very low activity at room temperature. In search for an explanation of this behavior, we measured the conformational flexibility of the protein by hydrogen-deuterium exchange and compared the results with those obtained with GAPDH from rabbit muscle (RmGAPDH). At room temperature, the conformational flexibility of TmGAPDH is much less than that of RmGAPDH, but increases with increasing temperature and becomes comparable to that of RmGAPDH near the physiological temperature of Thermotoga maritima. Using the available three-dimensional structures of the two enzymes, we compared the B factors that reflect the local mobility of protein atoms. The largest differences in B factors are seen in the coenzyme and NAD binding regions. The likely reason for the low activity of TmGAPDH at room temperature is that the motions required for enzyme functions are restricted. The findings support the idea of "corresponding states" which claims that over the time span of evolution, the overall conformational flexibility of proteins has been preserved at their corresponding physiological temperatures.
The crystal structure of a trypsin-like mutant chymotrypsin: the role of position 226 in the activity and specificity of S189D chymotrypsin.
Protein J 27, 79-87.
The crystal structure of the S189D+A226G rat chymotrypsin-B mutant has been determined at 2.2 angstroms resolution. This mutant is the most trypsin-like mutant so far in the line of chymotrypsin-to-trypsin conversions, aiming for a more complete understanding of the structural basis of substrate specificity in pancreatic serine proteases. A226G caused significant rearrangements relative to S189D chymotrypsin, allowing an internal conformation of Asp189 which is close to that in trypsin. Serious distortions remain, however, in the activation domain, including zymogen-like features. The pH-profile of activity suggests that the conformation of the S1-site of the mutant is influenced also by the P1 residue of the substrate.
Revisiting the mechanism of the autoactivation of the complement protease C1r in the C1 complex: structure of the active catalytic region of C1r.
Mol Immunol 45, 1752-60.
C1r is a modular serine protease which is the autoactivating component of the C1 complex of the classical pathway of the complement system. We have determined the first crystal structure of the entire active catalytic region of human C1r. This fragment contains the C-terminal serine protease (SP) domain and the preceding two complement control protein (CCP) modules. The activated CCP1-CCP2-SP fragment makes up a dimer in a head-to-tail fashion similarly to the previously characterized zymogen. The present structure shows an increased number of stabilizing interactions. Moreover, in the crystal lattice there is an enzyme-product relationship between the C1r molecules of neighboring dimers. This enzyme-product complex exhibits the crucial S1-P1 salt bridge between Asp631 and Arg446 residues, and intermolecular interaction between the CCP2 module and the SP domain. Based on these novel structural information we propose a new split-and-reassembly model for the autoactivation of the C1r. This model is consistent with experimental results that have not been explained adequately by previous models. It allows autoactivation of C1r without large-scale, directed movement of C1q arms. The model is concordant with the stability of the C1 complex during activation of the next complement components.
Human myosin Vc is a low duty ratio, nonprocessive molecular motor.
J Biol Chem 283, 8527-37
Myosin Vc is the product of one of the three genes of the class V myosin found in vertebrates. It is widely found in secretory and glandular tissues, with a possible involvement in transferrin trafficking. Transient and steady-state kinetic studies of human myosin Vc were performed using a truncated, single-headed construct. Steady-state actin-activated ATPase measurements revealed a V(max) of 1.8 +/- 0.3 s(-1) and a K(ATPase) of 43 +/- 11 microm. Unlike previously studied vertebrate myosin Vs, the rate-limiting step in the actomyosin Vc ATPase pathway is the release of inorganic phosphate (~1.5 s(-1)), rather than the ADP release step (~12.0-16.0 s(-1)). Nevertheless, the ADP affinity of actomyosin Vc (K(d) = 0.25 +/- 0.02 microm) reflects a higher ADP affinity than seen in other myosin V isoforms. Using the measured kinetic rates, the calculated duty ratio of myosin Vc was approximately 10%, indicating that myosin Vc spends the majority of the actomyosin ATPase cycle in weak actin-binding states, unlike the other vertebrate myosin V isoforms. Consistent with this, a fluorescently labeled double-headed heavy meromyosin form showed no processive movements along actin filaments in a single molecule assay, but it did move actin filaments at a velocity of approximately 24 nm/s in ensemble assays. Kinetic simulations reveal that the high ADP affinity of actomyosin Vc may lead to elevations of the duty ratio of myosin Vc to as high as 64% under possible physiological ADP concentrations. This, in turn, may possibly imply a regulatory mechanism that may be sensitive to moderate changes in ADP concentration.